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AMCIS researchers investigate to what degree cognitive peer characteristics are associated with citizenship knowledge and citizenship attitudes in primary education. Amidst worries about growing inequalities in citizenship competences of younger generations, policymakers increasingly call on education to equip students for functioning in a democratic society.

The degree to which teachers may address inequalities in citizenship outcomes of their students, may depend on the cognitive composition of the classroom, however.

The findings suggest that particularly low language ability students benefit from being surrounded with classroom peers that display both variation in and high average levels of cognitive ability for the acquisition of citizenship knowledge.


citizenship knowledge, citizenship attitudes, cognitive classroom composition, peer effects, inequalities.

Download Working Paper 'Inequalities in Youth Citizenship Knowledge and Attitudes'